Certicos V2

Smart Contract Audit Report

Audit Summary

Certicos V2 Audit Report Certicos V2 is a new BEP-20 token on the Binance Smart Chain.

For this audit, we reviewed the project team's CerticosV2 contract at 0x194a3e48796305c148C5c8E82FbeBfEad26F32fE on the Binance Smart Chain Mainnet.

Audit Findings

No findings were identified, though some centralized aspects are present.
Date: November 28th, 2023.
Updated: December 12th, 2023 to reflect the updated total supply of the token.

Contract Overview

  • The total supply of the token is currently 500 million $CERT [500,000,000].
  • The maximum supply cap is set to 700 million tokens.
  • Any user granted the Minter role can mint any number of tokens to any address as long as the maximum supply cap is not exceeded at any time.
  • Any user granted the Minter role can declare minting as "Finished" at any time. Once executed, minting can no longer occur.
  • Any user can burn their own tokens to reduce the total supply at any time.
  • Any user can burn tokens on another user's behalf up to their granted allowance at any time.
  • At the time of writing this report, there are 12,069 total token holders. The token allocation is as follows:
    • 20% of the total supply belongs to an EOA.
    • 19.13% of the total supply belongs to the owner.
    • 12% of the total supply belongs to an EOA.
    • The next eight holders own a cumulative 48% of the total supply.

  • The owner can add/remove any address from the Minter role list at any time.
  • As the contract is deployed with Solidity v0.8.18, it is safe from any possible overflows/underflows.
  • The contract complies with the BEP-20 token standard.

Audit Results

Vulnerability Category Notes Result
Arbitrary Jump/Storage Write N/A PASS
Centralization of Control Any user granted the Minter role can mint any number of tokens to any address up to the maximum supply cap. PASS
Compiler Issues N/A PASS
Delegate Call to Untrusted Contract N/A PASS
Dependence on Predictable Variables N/A PASS
Ether/Token Theft N/A PASS
Flash Loans N/A PASS
Front Running N/A PASS
Improper Events N/A PASS
Improper Authorization Scheme N/A PASS
Integer Over/Underflow N/A PASS
Logical Issues N/A PASS
Oracle Issues N/A PASS
Outdated Compiler Version N/A PASS
Race Conditions N/A PASS
Reentrancy N/A PASS
Signature Issues N/A PASS
Sybil Attack N/A PASS
Unbounded Loops N/A PASS
Unused Code N/A PASS
Overall Contract Safety   PASS

Inheritance Chart

Smart Contract Audit - Inheritance

Function Graph

Smart Contract Audit - Graph

Functions Overview

 ($) = payable function
 # = non-constant function
 Int = Internal
 Ext = External
 Pub = Public

 +  Context 
    - [Int] _msgSender
    - [Int] _msgData

 +  Ownable (Context)
    - [Pub]  #
    - [Pub] owner
    - [Pub] renounceOwnership #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] transferOwnership #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner

 + [Int] IBEP20 
    - [Ext] totalSupply
    - [Ext] balanceOf
    - [Ext] transfer #
    - [Ext] allowance
    - [Ext] approve #
    - [Ext] transferFrom #

 + [Int] IBEP20Metadata (IBEP20)
    - [Ext] name
    - [Ext] symbol
    - [Ext] decimals

 + [Lib] Roles 
    - [Int] add #
    - [Int] remove #
    - [Int] has

 +  MinterRole (Ownable)
    - [Pub]  #
    - [Pub] isMinter
    - [Pub] addMinter #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner
    - [Pub] renounceMinter #
    - [Int] _addMinter #
    - [Int] _removeMinter #

 +  BEP20 (Context, IBEP20, IBEP20Metadata, Ownable)
    - [Pub]  #
    - [Pub] name
    - [Pub] symbol
    - [Pub] decimals
    - [Pub] totalSupply
    - [Pub] balanceOf
    - [Pub] transfer #
    - [Pub] allowance
    - [Pub] approve #
    - [Pub] transferFrom #
    - [Pub] increaseAllowance #
    - [Pub] decreaseAllowance #
    - [Int] _transfer #
    - [Int] _mint #
    - [Int] _burn #
    - [Int] _approve #
    - [Int] _beforeTokenTransfer #

 +  BEP20Mintable (BEP20, MinterRole)
    - [Pub] mint #
       - modifiers: onlyMinter

 +  BEP20Burnable (Context, BEP20)
    - [Pub] burn #
    - [Pub] burnFrom #

 +  BEP20Capped (BEP20Mintable)
    - [Pub]  #
    - [Pub] cap
    - [Int] _mint #

 +  CerticosV2 (BEP20Capped, BEP20Burnable)
    - [Pub]  #
       - modifiers: BEP20,BEP20Capped
    - [Pub] mintingFinished
    - [Int] _mint #
    - [Pub] mint #
       - modifiers: canMint
    - [Pub] transfer #
    - [Pub] transferFrom #
    - [Pub] finishMinting #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner,canMint
    - [Pub] removeMinter #
       - modifiers: onlyOwner

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What is a SourceHat Audit?

Typically, a smart contract audit is a comprehensive review process designed to discover logical errors, security vulnerabilities, and optimization opportunities within code. A SourceHat Audit takes this a step further by verifying economic logic to ensure the stability of smart contracts and highlighting privileged functionality to create a report that is easy to understand for developers and community members alike.

How Do I Interpret the Findings?

Each of our Findings will be labeled with a Severity level. We always recommend the team resolve High, Medium, and Low severity findings prior to deploying the code to the mainnet. Here is a breakdown on what each Severity level means for the project:

  • High severity indicates that the issue puts a large number of users' funds at risk and has a high probability of exploitation, or the smart contract contains serious logical issues which can prevent the code from operating as intended.
  • Medium severity issues are those which place at least some users' funds at risk and has a medium to high probability of exploitation.
  • Low severity issues have a relatively minor risk association; these issues have a low probability of occurring or may have a minimal impact.
  • Informational issues pose no immediate risk, but inform the project team of opportunities for gas optimizations and following smart contract security best practices.