Kinuverse - Smart Contract Audit Report

Audit Summary

Kinuverse ($KINU) is a new BEP-20 token that is an automatic liquidity providing protocol that pays out static rewards to holders.

We reviewed the Kinuverse contract using code provided to us by the project team.

Audit Findings

Please ensure trust in the team prior to investing as they have substantial control in the ecosystem.
Date: February 23rd, 2022.

Finding #1 - Kinuverse - Informational

Description: Several functions are declared public, but are never called internally.
name, symbol, decimals, totalSupply, transfer, allowance, approve, transferFrom, setTrading, blockBots, unblockBot, setFee, setMinSwapTokensThreshold, toggleSwap, setMaxTxnAmount, setMaxWalletSize, excludeMultipleAccountsFromFees
Recommendation: We recommend declaring these functions external for additional gas savings on each call.

Finding #2 - Kinuverse - Informational

Description: The following state variables can never be modified, but are not declared constant.
_developmentAddress, _marketingAddress, _previousOwner
Recommendation: These state variables can be declared constant for additional gas savings on each reference and to reduce deployment costs.

Finding #3 - Kinuverse - Informational

Description: Although the SafeMath library is utilized, the contract is implemented with Solidity v0.8.x which has built-in overflow checks.
Recommendation: SafeMath could be safely removed to reduce contract size and deployment costs.

Contract Overview

  • The total supply of the token is set to 10 million $KINU [10,000,000] and will be minted to the owner upon deployment.
  • No mint or burn functions exist, though the circulating supply can be decreased by sending tokens to the 0x..dead address.
  • There was no token allocation for our team to analyze as the contract has yet to be deployed to the mainnet.

  • Trading must be enabled by the owner in order for all trading to take place on the platform. Only the owner can participate in transfers when trading is set to disabled.
  • There is a Tax fee and a Team fee on all transfers via Pancakeswap where neither the sender nor the recipient is excluded from fees. A separate fee structure can be set by the team to apply different fee percentages depending on whether the user is buying or selling during the transfer.
  • The tokens collected through the Tax fee are removed from the circulating supply; This serves as a frictionless fee redistribution which automatically benefits all token holders at the time of each transaction.
  • The Team fee charged during transfers is stored in the contract address. The tokens are swapped for BNB when the following conditions are met:
    • The automatic swapping functionality is enabled by the team.
    • The threshold number of tokens in the contract address (determined by the owner) has been reached.
    • The contract is not currently swapping tokens for BNB.
    • The transfer is not a buying transaction via Pancakeswap.
    • Both the sender and the recipient are not excluded from fees.
  • The BNB received through this process is split between the team's Marketing wallet and Dev wallet.
  • The contract enforces a maximum transaction amount (determined by the owner) which imposes a limit to the number of tokens that can be transferred during any given transaction.
  • The contract enforces a maximum wallet amount which prevents a transfer from occurring if the recipient's token balance will exceed the limit number of tokens (determined by the owner) after the transfer takes place.
  • The contract features an antibot mechanism that is triggered when a user attempts to buy tokens from Pancakeswap in the same block (or before) the launch block of the contract. The address attempting the transfer will be added to a transfer blacklist.
  • As the contract is implemented with Solidity v0.8.x, it is protected from overflows/underflows.
  • The contract complies with the BEP-20 token standard.
Ownership Controls:
  • The owner can modify the Tax fee and Team fee for both the buy and sell fee structures to any percentages at any time.
  • The owner can exclude and include accounts from transfer fees.
  • The owner can add/remove accounts from the transfer blacklist at any time.
  • The owner can update the maximum transaction amount and maximum wallet amount to any values at any time.
  • The owner can pause all transfers at any time.
  • The owner can enable/disable the automatic token swapping functionality at any time.
  • The owner can update the threshold number of tokens needed to trigger the automatic token swapping functionality to any value at any time.
  • The Marketing address or Dev address can manually swap the tokens in the contract address for BNB and send them to the team's Marketing wallet and Dev wallet.

External Threat Results

Vulnerability CategoryNotesResult
Arbitrary Storage WriteN/APASS
Arbitrary JumpN/APASS
Centralization of Control
  • The owner can set each fee percentage up to 100%.
  • The owner can manually blacklist accounts from being able to participate in transfers.
    Delegate Call to Untrusted ContractN/APASS
    Dependence on Predictable VariablesN/APASS
    Deprecated OpcodesN/APASS
    Ether ThiefN/APASS
    External CallsN/APASS
    Flash LoansN/APASS
    Integer Over/UnderflowN/APASS
    Logical IssuesN/APASS
    Multiple SendsN/APASS
    State Change External CallsN/APASS
    Unchecked RetvalN/APASS
    User Supplied AssertionN/APASS
    Critical Solidity CompilerN/APASS
    Overall Contract Safety PASS

    Function Graph

    BEP20 Token Graph

    Inheritance Chart

    Multi-file Token

    Functions Overview

    ($) = payable function
     # = non-constant function
     +  Context 
        - [Int] _msgSender
     + [Int] IERC20 
        - [Ext] totalSupply
        - [Ext] balanceOf
        - [Ext] transfer #
        - [Ext] allowance
        - [Ext] approve #
        - [Ext] transferFrom #
     +  Ownable (Context)
        - [Pub]  #
        - [Pub] owner
        - [Pub] renounceOwnership #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
        - [Pub] transferOwnership #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
     + [Lib] SafeMath 
        - [Int] add
        - [Int] sub
        - [Int] sub
        - [Int] mul
        - [Int] div
        - [Int] div
     + [Int] IUniswapV2Factory 
        - [Ext] createPair #
     + [Int] IUniswapV2Router02 
        - [Ext] swapExactTokensForETHSupportingFeeOnTransferTokens #
        - [Ext] factory
        - [Ext] WETH
        - [Ext] addLiquidityETH ($)
     +  Kinuverse (Context, IERC20, Ownable)
        - [Pub]  #
        - [Pub] name
        - [Pub] symbol
        - [Pub] decimals
        - [Pub] totalSupply
        - [Pub] balanceOf
        - [Pub] transfer #
        - [Pub] allowance
        - [Pub] approve #
        - [Pub] transferFrom #
        - [Prv] tokenFromReflection
        - [Prv] removeAllFee #
        - [Prv] restoreAllFee #
        - [Prv] _approve #
        - [Prv] _transfer #
        - [Prv] swapTokensForEth #
           - modifiers: lockTheSwap
        - [Prv] sendETHToFee #
        - [Pub] setTrading #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
        - [Ext] manualswap #
        - [Ext] manualsend #
        - [Pub] blockBots #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
        - [Pub] unblockBot #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
        - [Prv] _tokenTransfer #
        - [Prv] _transferStandard #
        - [Prv] _takeTeam #
        - [Prv] _reflectFee #
        - [Ext]  ($)
        - [Prv] _getValues
        - [Prv] _getTValues
        - [Prv] _getRValues
        - [Prv] _getRate
        - [Prv] _getCurrentSupply
        - [Pub] setFee #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
        - [Pub] setMinSwapTokensThreshold #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
        - [Pub] toggleSwap #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
        - [Pub] setMaxTxnAmount #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
        - [Pub] setMaxWalletSize #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner
        - [Pub] excludeMultipleAccountsFromFees #
           - modifiers: onlyOwner